Summary and Analysis of Survey
Survey Summary of
Period of survey June 21 to July 11, 2001
For collecting information on living satisfaction level of citizens in Taiwan-Fuchien Area, future living directions, governmental works that needed reinforcement, volunteer service, substitutive service, sexual assault prevention and domestic violence prevention, to provide, as a reference, to Ministry of the Interior and other government related agencies in setting policies and other administrative decision making, Ministry of the Interior, on June and July, 2001, conducted “Survey of living conditions of citizens in Taiwan-Fuchien Area”
This survey randomly sampled 4,067 citizens for interviews, focusing on residents living in Taiwan-Fuchien Area who were the age 20 and over. Survey method was to use computer assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI). The survey’s confidence coefficient was 95% and over and sampling error was less than 1.5%. The survey result of citizens’ current living satisfaction level, future living prospect etc. was summarized below:
I. Citizen’s satisfaction levels of various living conditions
1. Citizen’s satisfaction level of one’s own current living condition
(1)37.0% of citizens had gone through major change of life style in the pass year, amount the changes 11.3% were lost of jobs or failure of business, 7.7% were finding new jobs or starting new careers.
(2)62.2% of citizens felt satisfied about current living condition (including satisfied and very satisfied), 34.2% felt dissatisfied about current living condition (including dissatisfied and very dissatisfied). Comparing to year 2000, citizens who felt satisfied about their current livings were lowered by 10.8 percentage points.
2. Citizen’s satisfaction level of various states of current living condition
(1)Relationships with parents or parents in laws, with children, and with spouse were states of current living that 90% of citizens felt satisfied; 80% were satisfied with relationships with neighbors; 79.3% were satisfied with health condition.
(2)Relationships with parents: For citizens whose parents were still alive, 93.2% were satisfied with their relationships with their parents, only 5.4% were not satisfied. There were more male than female that were amount the ones that felt satisfied; the number of satisfied citizens decreased as the age increased.
(3)Relationships with children: For citizens who had children, 93% were satisfied with their relationships with their children, only 5.2% were not satisfied. There were no apparent differences between male and female amount the ones that felt satisfied; as age increased, number of satisfied citizens decreased.
(4)Relationship with spouse: For citizens who had spouses, 91.9% were satisfied with their relationships with their spouses, only 6.1% were not satisfied. There were no apparent differences between male and female amount the ones that felt satisfied; as age increased, number of satisfied citizens decreased.
(5)Relationship with neighbors: 85% of citizens were satisfied with their relationships with their neighbors, 9.4% were not satisfied. Amount those that were satisfied, middle and old age citizens were a lot more than younger citizens; towns and villages were noticeably higher than cities.
(6)Health conditions: 79.3% of citizens were satisfied with their health conditions, 19.7% were not satisfied. There were more male amount the satisfied than female; as age increases, number of satisfied citizens decreases.
3. Citizen’s dissatisfaction level of various states of current living condition
(1)The various states of living conditions that citizens felt dissatisfied were 51.7% financial situations, 33.1% leisure live, work and traffic were 28.4% and 27.2% respectively. 22.7% of social activities were also high.
(2)Financial situations: 45.2% were satisfied with their current financial situations, 51.7% were not satisfied. There was an increase of 16.1 percentage points when compared to year 2000. There was no apparent differences between genders amount the dissatisfied; Citizens amount ages 30-39 was the most dissatisfied which indicated that citizens during those ages were trying to establish families and thus having great financial pressure.
(3)Leisure live: 60.5% were satisfied with their leisure live, 33.1% were not satisfied. There was an increase of 3 percentage points when compared to year 2000 which indicated that qualities of leisure live of citizens had gone down in the passed year.
(4)Working conditions: For citizens who had jobs, 69.5% were satisfied with their working conditions, 27.2% were not satisfied. There was an increase of 1.3 percentage points when compared to year 2000. Amount citizens that were dissatisfied, male residents of villages had highest percentage.
(5)Traffic conditions: 71.7% of citizens were satisfied with traffic conditions near by their current dwellings, 27.2% were not satisfied. There was a decrease of 8 percentage points when compared to year 2000, showing that traffic conditions were constantly improving, but still had room for improvement. There were no apparent differences between genders amount the dissatisfied; the younger the age, the higher the number of dissatisfied; villages and cities were higher than towns.
(6)Social activities: 68.4% were satisfied about their own social activities, 22.7% were dissatisfied. There was an increase of 4 percentage points when compared to year 2000, showing there were a lot of citizens who hoped to increase their social activities.
II. Citizen satisfaction levels of social modes, maintaining social order conditions, and religious activities.
1. Citizen satisfaction levels of current social modes, moral principles
79.4% of citizens were dissatisfied about current social modes, moral principles, only 14.9% were satisfied, showing social modes and moral principles were in urgent need of improvement. Amount the dissatisfied, male had higher ratio than female; Cities had much higher ratio than towns and villages.
2. Citizen’s opinion of maintaining social order improvement over the passed year
(1)37.4% of citizens did not feel that there was any improvement of maintaining social order in the passed year, 36.5% felt it was getting worse, only 21.5% felt that there were a lot or some improvements.
(2)Amount the reasons for none or worse improvements of maintaining social order, news media reporting of criminal cases rank the highest, taking 71.4%.
3. Citizen satisfaction levels of current religious activities
(1)64% of citizens claimed to have religious believes, this number increased proportional to age.
(2)52.1% of citizens were satisfied about current religious activities in the society, 31.3% were not satisfied. This showed that although most citizens were accepting to religions in current society, there were some that were still unsatisfied.
(3)Female had higher ratio in terms of being satisfied about current religious activities in society; as age increased, satisfaction decreased; from the point of view of having a religion or not, those that had religious believes were more satisfied (55.8%) than those that did not have religious believes (45.4%).
III. Citizen expectations of future living.
1.Citizen expectations of living conditions in next year
(1)36.6% of citizen expected about the same living conditions after next year, 21.1% expected better living conditions (including better and a lot better), 31.8% expected worse living conditions (including worse and a lot worse).
(2)Those that expected worse living conditions after next year composed far more by male than female; mainly age 40-64; more of employed than jobless.
2.Issues that worried citizens the most in future living conditions
(1)93.2% of citizens had issue that worried them in their future livings. 41.1% were issues relating to financial problems, 38.7% were issues relating to careers, 35.1% were issues relating to the education of children and their schooling.
(2)Priorities of future living issues that worried male and female were different. Issues that worried male citizens rank as career issues (40%), financial issues (39.3%), children educations and schoolings (28.6%); issues that worried female citizens rank as financial issues (42.9%), children educations and schoolings (42%), and career issues (37.4%).
(3)Most pressing issue regarding future livings for citizens age 20-29 was career issues; for citizens age 30-49 was issue of children educations and schoolings; for citizens age 50-64 was financial issues; for citizen age 65 and over was health issue.
3.Citizen expectations of future living
(1)46.3% of citizens expected to have a safe living with maintaining good social order, 44.3% wished good jobs or smooth careers, 33.1% expected good health and 26% expected satisfied living with families.
(2)Male citizens expected good jobs and smooth careers (44.8%), safe livings with maintaining good social order, (44.7%). Female citizens also expected safe livings with maintaining good social order (48.1%) and good jobs and smooth careers (43.7%), but safe livings with maintaining good social order, took higher priority.
(3)Highest expected for future living for citizens age 20-39 was good jobs and smooth careers, for citizens age 40-49 was safe living with maintaining good social order, for citizens age 50-64 was also safe living with maintaining good social order, for citizens age 65 and over was good health.
Period of Survey : March 25 to April 25, 2000
For Collecting living condition, social support, health condition, economic status and other necessary information that senior welfare should based on, to provide, as a reference, to Ministry of the Interior and other government related agencies in setting senior welfare policies and other welfare benefits, Ministry of the Interior commissioned National Central University, on March to April, 2000 to conduct “Survey of senior citizens condition in Taiwan-Fuchien Area”, by random sampling 6,297 interviewees, focusing on average residents and residents of non-family household who were 50 years old and over that were citizen of ROC, living in Taiwan-Fuchien Area. Survey method for regular resident was to use computer assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI), for non-family households, an agent visited on-location to conduct interviews. The survey’s confidence coefficient was 99% and over and sampling error was less than 2%. The survey result was summarized below:
I. Health condition of citizens with age of 50 and over.
1. Health condition
Elders (citizen with age of 65 and over) whose health conditions were good or very good made up 41.2%, health conditions that were normal made up 36.6%, health conditions that were bad or very bad made up 21.8%; Citizens age 50-64 whose health conditions were good or very good made up 52.9%, health conditions that were normal made up 33.5%, health conditions that were bad or very bad made up 13.4%.
2. Care taker when hospitalized.
30.4 % of citizens with age of 65 and over were taken care of by son or (daughter in law) when hospitalized; 41.3% of citizens aged between 50 and 64 were taken care of by spouse when hospitalized. When using relative as care taker, the percentages are 70.7% and 58.9% for these two age groups respectively.
3. Disease distribution
Three top diseases suffered by citizens with age of 65 and over were heart and vascular disease taking up 34.7%, bone and muscular disease taking up 23.2%, and ear and eye disease taking up 12.7%.
Three top diseases suffered by citizen between age 50 and 64 are heart and vascular disease taking up 18.7%, bone and muscular disease taking up 17.6%, and disease of digestive system including liver, stomach, intestine taking up 9.5%.
II. Economic condition of citizens with age of 50 and over
1. Main source of income
47.1% of citizens with age of 65 and over were getting main source of income from offspring, 15.4% were getting main source of income from retirement funds, pension or insurance; 63.0% of citizens aged between 50 and 64 worked for their main source of income, 21.6% were supported by offspring.
2. Economic condition
57.7% of citizens with age of 65 and over had economic conditions such that their expenses were covered, 22.3% were well off, 13.7% had difficulties; 57.3% of citizens between aged 50 and 64 had economic conditions such that their expenses were covered, 24.9% were well off, and 12.6% had difficulties.
3. Average monthly living expenses
38.5% of citizens with age of 65 and over had average monthly living expenses under NT6000 , 24.8% were between NT6000 and NT12000; 26.7% of citizens aged between 50 and 64 had average living expenses between NT6000 and NT12000 , 25.2% were under NT6000. Average monthly living expenses of citizens aged between 50 and 64 were NT12,311, which was NT2,897 higher than citizen aged 65 and over whose average monthly living expenses were NT9414.
III. The welfare demands for citizens with age of 50 and over
1. Urgent welfare programs for citizens with age of 50 and over
Urgent welfare programs for citizens aged 65 and over were medical treatment and health care, taking up 72.0%, living subsidizes, taking up 69.8%, and recreational activities, taking up 52.1%; Urgent welfare programs for citizens aged between 50 and 64 were medical treatment and health care, taking up 74.9%, recreational activities, taking up 64.4% and living subsidizes ,taking up 57.0%.
2. Less urgent welfare programs for citizens with age 50 of and over
Less urgent and none urgent welfare programs for citizens with age of 50 and over employment services, taking up 80.9%, learning opportunities, taking up 71.9% and home care services, taking up 71.8%; Less urgent and none urgent welfare programs for citizen aged between 50 and 64 were home care services, taking up 67.3%, psychological consultations, taking up 58.8%, and employment services, taking up 58.0%.
IV. Understanding and usage of senior citizen welfare
Elders (citizens with age of 65 and over) had utilized senior welfare programs included 53.0% that had used discounted public transportation services, and 45.0% that had used free health inspections; Those that have utilized senior welfares programs and felt most satisfied were 38.2% of discounted public transportation, 25.3% of free health inspections; senior citizens welfares that were known by elders but were not utilized were 48.2% of evergreen academies (main reason being not wanting to utilize them takes up 33.7%), 43.9% of living allowance for low and middle income senior citizens (main reason being not qualified takes up 25.0%).
Period of Survey : March to April, 1999
The ”Survey of activities of all levels of Trade groups and social groups in Taiwan-Fuchien Area” was sponsored by Ministry of Interior in April of 2000. This survey was to collect basic information such as member size, number of employees, floor area of assembly hall and office, ownership of assembly hall and office, revenue and expenditure, it was also to collect information such as hosting of cultural activities, publications, and measures the government should reinforce, to serve as a reference when government is institutionalizing social structure policies and consulting all levels of trade groups and social groups in pushing public services, charity and cultural activities. It also provided for the planning of governmental cultural development policies and public cultural investment. Civil non-profit groups’ overall final accounting of revenue and expenditure, calculation of non-profit department’s total output value can benefit from use it as reference also.
This survey was based on all levels of trade groups (industrial groups commercial groups and professional groups) and social groups that were located in Taiwan-Fuchien Area (including Fuchien province, Kinmen county and Lien-Chiang county, Taiwan province, Taipei Municipality and Kaohsiung Municipality) that had been legally registered for status claimed by central, provincial and county government chief institutions. However, this did not include political parties, labor parties (unions) and farmers and fishermen’s associations. Sampling method used municipalities and counties as subpopulation, categorized into levels and groups, using stratified random sampling method, There were 19,518 trade groups and social groups in Taiwan-Fuchien Area in 1999, 4,001 groups were selected as samples, the percentage of selection was 20.5%. Survey method of main inquiry was “postal letter inquiry”, subsidized by “telephone and on location interview”. The return rate for this sampling was 91.9%. Important survey result are summarized below:
1. Number of Trade groups and social groups
There were 19,518 trade groups and social groups of all levels in Taiwan-Fuchien Area in 1999. Amount the groups, there were 4,190 trade groups taking up 21.5% and there were 15,238 social groups taking up 78.5%.
Within trade groups, there were 2,315 industrial groups and commercial groups and 1,875 professional groups. Within social groups, there were mostly 4,740 social services and philanthropic groups taking up 24.3%, next 2,111 academic and cultural groups taking up 10.8%, only 50 groups that dealt with issues concerning the two sides of (Taiwan) Strait, taking up 0.3%.
2. Memberships and number of workers and staff members
Average number of individual members of trade groups and social groups of all levels was 289 persons, average number of group member was 9 groups, 19 companies, 2 factories and mining. Average number of workers and staff members included 14 council members, 4 supervisors, 1 specialist, 1 part-time worker, 5 volunteers.
3. Ownership and Floor area of assembly hall and office
Average of used floor area of assembly hall and office for trade groups and social groups was 129 square meters, mostly 65.4% of the ownerships were by lease, next 17.0% were rentals, 14.5% were owners, mixture of more than two of above mentioned ownerships were only 3.1%.
4. Revenue and expenditure
Average revenue of trade groups and social groups was NT$2.22 millions. Mostly amount of the revenue taking up 22.5% or NT$0.5 million came from member fee, next taking up 20.0% or NT$0.44 million came from civil and member donation, taking up 4.3% or NT$0.1 million came from interests of funds. Average expenditures of trade groups and social groups was NT$2.12 millions. Mostly amount of the expenditures taking up 29.5% or NT$0.63 million were used on business affairs, next taking up 19% or NT$0.40 million were used on personnel affairs, lastly taking up 0.5% or NT$0.01 million were used on paying interests.
5. General situations of cultural activities
87.9% of trade groups and social groups of all levels hosted cultural activities. Amount the activities, most groups hosted activities of learning nature via speech on special topics, taking up 39.5%, some hosted activities of leisure nature via events such as social nights, taking up 42.4%, activities of exhibition nature such as art exhibitions takes up 4.9%, art and cultural activities were mostly via exhibition and presentation of folk exhibitions, taking up 6.0%, activities of athletic nature were mostly carried out as mountain climbing, hiking, taking up 20.7%. 12.1% never hosted any activities. Reasons for not hosting any activities was measured by the score of importance, mostly were the lack of funding (79.0), next been lack of enthusiasm (26.2), lastly the lack of leader who would take responsibilities (11.8)
6. General situation of publication
37.7% of trade groups and social groups had at once published publications. Amount them, 75.5% published one publication. 31.2% published yearly publications. 57.9% published publications of variety nature. Main reason for groups of all levels not publish any publication was lack of funding (70.8%).
7. Sources and usages of funding for cultural activities
Total expenditure for cultural activities of trade groups and social groups was NT$14.5 billions, taking up 35% of total expenditure of that year (NT$41.3 billions) Average cultural activities expenditure per group was NT$ 0.74 million. Main source of funding was from listed budgets (the score of importance 47.2); equipments and material costs were the main expenditures (the score of importance 43.6).
8. Installations and usages of leisure facilities
95% of trade groups and social groups of all levels in Taiwan-Fuchien Area did not install any leisure facilities in 1999. Usage of leisure facilities were mostly by installation and rental of leisure activity centers, taking up 39.9%, next 15.7% were using gymnastic and amusement facilities, 13.5% were using artistry (popularize) training classes.
9. Cooperation with government sponsored charities and cultural activities
53.3% of trade groups and social groups of all levels were cooperative toward government sponsored charities and cultural activities. 23.2% had cooperated once with the government. 27.1% cooperated by supporting in staffing and funding.
10. Measures that should be strengthen in execution by government
Most trade groups and social groups of all levels hoped that the government would strengthen the execution of aware measures (the score of importance 53.1), secondly, strengthen the support for occupational activities (the score of importance 39.6), and lastly, assist in the completion of group organization (the score of importance 21.7).
Period of Survey : March to April, 1999
The ”Survey of living requirement of physically and mentally disabled citizens in Taiwan-Fuchien Area” was sponsored by Ministry of the Interior, Department of Health, Executive Yuan and Council of Labor Affairs, Executive Yuan, co-sponsored by Department of Social Welfare, Chung-Cheng University. Project lasted from March 1 until December 31,2000, coverage of survey included Taiwan Province, Taipei Municipality, Kaohsiung Municipality and Kinmen-Matsu Area.
This survey targeted residents of Taiwan-Fuchien Area, who qualified grades set by chief institution of central department of health and received hand book for physically and mentally disabled citizens. Sampling method employed “two-staged stratified random sampling”, survey’s confidence coefficient was 95% and over and sampling deviation was less than 2%. Sample distribution employed equal ratio method, total sampling percentage was 1.27%, completed and valid samplings were 7,744 people. Due to the special needs of physically and mentally disabled population, the investigation method was on location for interview and collection of information to better understand the living conditions of physically and mentally disabled citizens. Important survey results are summarized below:
1. Basic information
1) Physically and mentally disabled citizens of this nation were composed of 60.2% male and 39.8% female. Education level distribution: primary schools (31.5%), illiterates (23.7%), junior high schools and senior high schools were 16.0% and 16.2% respectively, junior colleges, colleges & Universities 7.7%; about 3.2% were self-taught (literates), 1.8% were kindergarten and pre-kindergartens.
2) The vision handicapped and the hearing handicapped mostly toward mid to old age, dementia handicapped toward older age, mentally handicapped and autism were mostly during childhood or pre-juvenile period; other handicapped mostly occurred during adulthood or working population.
2. Living conditions
1) 92.5% of physically and mentally disabled citizens dwelled at home; only 7.5% dwelled at various kinds of public or private skill training and caring institutes. Family was still the main caretaker for physically and mentally disabled citizens. Of those that dwelled at home, 49.6% could take care of themselves.
2) Of those that lived at home and had high percentage that were able to take care of themselves were hearing or balance handicapped (63.9%), voice or speaking organism handicapped (59.8%), disfigurement (58.7%), limbs handicapped (57.6%), losing functions of primary organs (51.7%), vision handicapped (51.1%). The ones with lower percentage were autism (20.7%), other handicapped (29.7%), multiple handicapped (28.6%), chronic psychopath (39.0%), mentally handicapped (38.0%), dementia (7.1%). This showed that people with disability of the body and organ had higher percentage than people with mental disability in taking care of themselves.
3) The major caretaker of those physically and mentally disabled citizens who lived at home were mainly spouse (15.0%), followed by mother (10.2%), daughter-in-law (3.6%), son (3.0%). composed of families for physically and mentally disabled citizens were mainly stem family (21.0%), nuclear family (15.8%), single-parent family (10.4%), followed by those that live only with spouse (10.0%).
4) 46.2% of families of physically and mentally disabled citizens had greater expenditure than income, 44.8% had balanced expenditure and income, 9% had greater income than expenditure. Expenditures of families with physically and mentally disabled citizens were from NT$30,000 to NT$40,000, made up 30.0%, those that were below NT$20,000, made up 25.0%.
5) Survey information showed that 53.9% of families with physically and mentally disabled citizens did not take living subsidy, those that took living subsidy (including various governmental subsidies, including home-stay physically and mentally disabled citizens subsidy, low income family and elder living subsidy) were 46.1%. Of those home-stay physically and mentally disabled citizens that took subsidy, 30.0% took living subsidy NT$3,000 toNT$4,999, 7.5% took NT$3,000 and below, 5.6% took NT$5,000 to NT$6,999, 2.0% took NT$9,000 and above, 1.1% took NT$7,000 to NT$8,999.
6) Of those the proportion of physically and mentally disabled citizens that took living subsidy, Kinmen-Matsu Area ranked the first (91.4%), followed by Taipei Municipality (84.9%), Kaohsiung Municipality (52.8%), and Taiwan Province (39.8%).
3. Living welfare programs that government should take priority to handle
The top 5 living welfare programs that physically and mentally disabled citizens thought government should take priority to handle the score of importance were: 68.0 for living subsidy providing senior disabled citizen’s caring and nursing services (41.9), establish national pension system (18.4), safeguard reasonable salary (16.5), employment services (10.5). These showed that physically and mentally disabled citizens hoped that assistance from government were mainly to improve their financial situation.
4. Medical services and health care
1) 99.7% of physically and mentally disabled citizens carried the national health insurance cards, 0.3% of physically and mentally disabled citizens did not join in the national health insurance. The disabled citizens visits to doctors average 28 times per year. 35.5% of physically and mentally disabled citizens visits to doctors from 18 times to 30times, 19.8% of physically and mentally disabled citizens visits to doctors from 36times to 60 times, those visits to doctors less than 6times were 19.9%.
2) Percentage of physically and mentally disabled citizens that were hospitalized during the passed year were 27.0%, average number of hospitalizations were 2.6 times.
3) Top 5 departments mainly visited by physically and mentally disabled citizens in the passed year were: department of internal medicine 52.3%, department of psychiatry 7.1%, department of neurology 6.2%, department of osteopathy (4.7%), department of otolaryngology (4.5%).
4) 44.4% of physically and mentally disabled citizens were afraid that medical bill would be too high to pay for. 42.5% were not able to independently complete procedure of hospital registration, 26.3% had riding difficulties, 24.7% did not know which hospital or which doctor to visit.
5) 77.9% of physically and mentally disabled citizens expressed that there were no accident requiring hospitalization in the passed year, 22.1% had need to be hospitalization due to accident. The highest percentage of accident were scraping, taking up 12.3%, next up was bone fracture, taking up 5.6%, followed by tinnitus, taking up 5.1%. Hearing or balance handicapped was the highest categories of disability needing hospitalization, taking up 28.1%, next up was vision handicapped, taking up 26.6%, others handicapped categories occured accident that needed hospitalization were 22.4%.
5. Medical care programs that government should take priority to handle first
Top 5 medical care programs that physically and mentally disabled citizens thought government should take priority to handle the score of importance, first were: providing medical treatment subsidy made up 54.2, next was regular free health inspection made up 26.9, followed by providing near-by medical care services within community taking up 21.7, 21.0 were to provide home-care, 16.5 were to provide medical information. From the answers of physically and mentally disabled handicapped, it seemed that they looked mainly for financial assistance followed by information provision and community medical resources etc..
6. Employment services and vocational training
1) Within the physically and mentally disabled citizens age 15 and over, 24.1% were labor force, amount those 19.1% were employed persons, 5.0% were unemployed persons; 75.9% were noting labor force, including: those offending school or preparing to advance to higher education (2.8%), housekeepers (7.1%), retired (2.5%), heavily disabilities (34.9%), old age (24.2%). Employed persons and unemployed persons within physically and mentally disabled citizens were about 24.1%, this population was the main target of employment policies.
2) Introduction by family or friends was the top rank method for employed physically and mentally disabled citizens to find jobs, taking up 34.3%, next would be interviewing by one’s self (25.5%), distributed as result of employment test (6.3%), rest were introduced by social welfare organizations (4.7%), introduced by teachers (2.6%), introduced by employment services agencies (2.6%).
3) For those physically and mentally disabled citizens that were working, their industry categories were: services (55.9%), industry (39.3%), agricultural forest fishing and animal husbandry (4.8%). Those within industry, 36.0% were in manufacturing. Those within services, 17.4% were in trade and eating-drinking places, 18.0% were in social personal and related community services, 12.1% were in public administration.
4) Physically and mentally disabled citizens that were working, their occupation categories were: mostly working as technicians and machine operators (28.1%), followed by non-technical and laborers (25.9%), clerks (11.6%), service worker and shop, market sale workers (11.3%).
5) Class of workers of physically and mentally disabled citizens were: paid employees by: privately (52.8%), own-account (24.3%), paid employees by government (15.2%), employers (5.0%), unpaid family workers (2.7%).
6) Number of employment institution were mostly 2 to 9 employees, taking up 30.4%, next would be 1 employee, taking up 21.5%, government agencies take up 13.9%, 10 to 29 employees (11.0%).
7) Average monthly salaries of physically and mentally disabled citizens workers were NT$25,881, 33.0% had salaries below NT$20,000, monthly salaries between NT$20,000 to NT$29,999 were 35.5%, monthly salaries between NT$30,000 to NT$39,999 were 15.0%. Average weekly working hours for physically and mentally disabled citizens were 49.1 hours, overtime were 1.1 hours; Mostly worked between 40 to 49 hours, taking up 51.3%, next were over 60 hours, taking up 22.3%. 8.5% were working 50 to 59 hours.
8) Top 5 handicap friendly facilities that were installed at working place were: wheel chair ramp and handle (16.9%), electronic voice broadcasting system (10.0%), guiding facilities for blind (7.7%), elevators for physically and mentally disabled citizens (8.7%), Braille services (4.7%).
9) Top 5 difficulties faced by physically and mentally disabled citizens when working were: no job securities (29.3%), no specialized skills (8.3%), commuting to and from work place (7.7%), different treatment at work conditions (7.3%), peculiar views from coworkers (4.9%).
10) Percentage of physically and mentally disabled citizens that had gone through vocational training were 7.5%, knowing that there were preferential supplement for joining vocational training were 14.8%. Answering yes to knowing that when joining vocational training continuously for 3 months and over, every month there would be living allowances were 10.9%. However, only 14.1% were willing to join vocational training.
11) For those that wanted to join vocational training, mostly would like to be trained in computer software application usages in business services (14.7%) and computer documents processing (10.2%).
Period of Survey : March to April, 1999
The ”Survey of health and mental conditions of juveniles in Taiwan-Fuchien Area” done in 1999 was hosted by Ministry of the Interior and co-hosted by Chinese Culture University Department of Social Welfare. The target population of this survey was residents of Taiwan-Fuchien Area who were over 12 years old and under 18 years old that were citizens of ROC, however, excluding military work force and institutional persons. Two-stage stratified random sampling was employed on samples consisting of 3,487 persons. Research was carried out by on-location interviews, the confidence coefficient was 95% or above and sampling error was less than +/-2%. The content of the survey was to collect juveniles, residing in Taiwan-Fuchien Area, their basic information, family conditions, living conditions, health and mental conditions, problems of education counseling, abnormal behavior conditions, problems faced by misfortune juveniles, the need and usage of juvenile welfare and expectation of future governmental treatment of juvenile welfare policies. It was to be referenced by government when creating forward-looking juvenile welfare policies and when adjusting juvenile welfare related regulations. At the same time it may be used as reference when designing juvenile related welfare policies and policy services regulations. The survey results are summarized below:
1. Information on sample characteristics
(1) Distribution of genders amount interviewees: 51.6% male, 48.5% female
(2) Interviewees that age were 15, 16, and 17 years old made up 17.2%, 18.2%, and 18.6% respectively. Interviewees that age were 12 years old made up only 13.8%.
(3) Most of interviewees had education level of junior high school, taking up 55.4%, education level of senior high school made up 41.7%.
(4) Most of interviewees were currently attending day school, making up 84.0%, those attending night school or supplementary school, working made up 6.2% and 3.7% respectively.
(5) Most interviewees were located in northern regions, taking up 40.7%, locating in southern regions made up 25.5%.
2. Family Conditions
(1) Most parents of juveniles worked in industry & mining, business trading, services , amount them 73.2% were fathers and 57.8% were mothers.
(2) About 30% of their parents had education level up to senior high school (vocational school).
(3) Juveniles who were living with both parents made up 76.6%, living with only one parent made up 13.4%, not living with any parents made up 10%.
3. Living Conditions
(1) More than half of the parents used democratic approach when discipline juveniles, often hold discussion with juveniles before making decisions, there were, however, 7% of fathers that did not care about the behavior of juveniles; there were about 33% of fathers that had conflicting views about higher educations with their children, mothers were often more concern about daily living of juveniles.
(2) When conflicting views occurred between parents and juveniles, most would take the “discussing until both sides can reach compromises” approach, taking up 43.0%.
(3) The thing that juveniles did with close friends most often was “chatting”, taking up 81.0%
(4) There were 38.8% of juveniles who attended supplementary school outside of regular school. The most popular purpose of attending supplementary school was to “prepare for higher education”, taking up 29.4%.
(5) Items that juveniles needed assistance with were: “schooling and higher education” which made up 61.3%, “financial support” which made up 24.7%.
(6) Expectations and wishes the parents had for juveniles: “continue higher education” which made up 52.2%.
(7) Social Activities that juveniles participated in: “temple rituals”11.0%, “jogging” 10.5%, “charity sales” 9.3%, “parent, child activities” 8.6%
4. Health and Mental Conditions
(1) About 70% were satisfied with their figures and appearances, 60% thought that they were people of confidences. There were 25% that bear the attitude that as long as I like it, nothing else matters.
(2) Juveniles’ sources of pressure, “parents” ranked the highest, taking up 62.9%, “self” made up 53.4%.
(3) Different layers of pressures for juveniles were “school assignments”, taking up 82.8%, “relationship with others”, taking up 30.3%.
(4) The most common emotional reactions from juveniles were “melancholy”, taking up 30.5%, “anger”, taking up 26.2%.
(5) The principles that guided juveniles’ moral judgments, “as long as it does not contradict one’s own conscience” ranked the highest, taking up 54.0%.
(6) Most trust worthy people for juveniles were, “parents”, taking up 45.2%, “schoolmates and friends” taking up 28.9%, “teachers” only takes up 6.9%.
(7) Standards for choosing friends of opposite gender for juveniles were, “personality” made up 69.7%, “able to chat with” made up 67.4%, “sharing same interests” made up 36.8%,“appearances” made up 35.2%.
(8) Juveniles that had special experiences, behaviors and unfortunate incidence made up 33.9%, most of the experiences involved “being threaten, blackmailed, extorted”, taking up 8.2%, abnormal behaviors usually involves “smoking, drinking and eating betel nuts”, taking up 12.2%.
5. The need and usage situation of juvenile welfare policies
(1) 55% of juveniles were satisfied with juvenile “emergency help”, “consultation and placement”, “emergency shelter”, and “search assistance”.
(2) Juveniles, in general, did think the “work safety education” and “drug abuse education” provided by school and society was not enough, the percentages were 53.5% and 47.7% respectively.
(3) Juveniles mostly only heard of but unfamiliar with governmental regulation regarding juveniles. Those that had heard of and were familiar with only made up 20% to 30%.
(4) 35.4% of juveniles thought that “providing more recreational Area” should be the first juvenile welfare item to be provided.
(5) The usage condition of juvenile welfare service center is mostly “heard of, but never being there” taking up 77.4%.
(6) The highest percentage of expected service provided by juveniles welfare service center was recreational activities, taking up 62.9%, next highest was outdoor activities, taking up 42.5%.
The Department of Statistics, the Ministry of the Interior (the Ministry) entrusted the Poll Association of R.O.C. to organize the “Survey on People's Living Conditions in Taiwan” from March to May in 1998. The survey was aimed at people over the age of 20 in each household and able to represent the opinion of said household about people's living conditions. 2,475 people were chosen by means of random sampling for interviews. The methods of survey were mainly by mail and by telephone or sending personnel for interviews as the assistance. The reliability of the survey is over 95% and the error less than 2%.
The purpose of survey was to study Taiwanese people's satisfaction on the lives in 1998, their expectations on lives in future, the works they think the government should reinforce, and their understanding of information about historical remains. These data will be provided to the relevant authorities of the Ministry and the government as the reference for administrative decision-making. The significant results of the survey are summarized as follows:
The Department of Statistics, the Ministry of the Interior (the Ministry) organized the"Survey on the General Conditions of Social Welfare Organizations in Taiwan and Fukien" from April to May this year (1998). The survey was to collect information on basic general conditions of social welfare organizations in Taiwan and Fukien like the number of organizations, number of employees and income and expense of funds etc. in 1996. The collected information was to serve as the reference for the government to study policies of social welfare and plan various service measures of social welfare. The range of this survey included Taiwan Province, Taipei City, Kaohsiung City and Kinmen County, Lienjiang County of Fukien Province. The targets of survey included social welfare charity foundations, nursery schools (including public, local, private and government-sponsored ones) and general social welfare organizations (including those for children welfare, juvenile welfare, women welfare, elderly welfare, welfare for the impaired and others). All surveys adopted field interviews by dispatched personnel. The significant results are summarized as follows:
I. General Conditions
The number of social welfare organizations in Taiwan and Fukien registered with the government by end of 1996 was 2,791. Among which, the number of nursery schools 2,204 stands at 79.0%, that of general social welfare organizations, 294, at 10.5% and that of foundations, 293, at 10.5%. Among nursery schools, 295 are public, 360 local, 1,546 private and 3 government-sponsored. Among general social welfare organizations, 85 are public, 178 private and 31 government-sponsored
II. Number of Employees
By end of 1996, the total number of employees' in general social welfare organizations and nursery schools was 30,428. Among which, full-time workers stood at 93.8%. The number of employees in foundations was 2,795. Among which, full-time workers stood at 64.3%. As divided by types of operation, the number of full-time workers in nursery schools was 21,654. Public ones stood at 25.5%, local ones 3.7%, private ones 70.5% and government-sponsor ones 0.3%. The number of full-time workers in general social welfare organizations was 6,886. Public ones stood at 39.5%, private 55.5% and government-sponsored 5.0%.
III. Income of Funds
In 1996, the average annual income of funds per general social welfare organization and nursery school was NT$6.46 million, mainly from fee collection, standing at 62.0% the highest. The average annual income of funds per foundation was NT$26.79 million, mainly from donations and giving, standing at 82.6% the highest. As divided by types of operation, the average annual income of funds per nursery school was NT$7.529 million for public ones, NT$1.025 million for local ones, NT$4.389 for private ones and NT$12.897 for government-sponsored ones. The average annual income of funds per general social welfare organization was NT$30.57 million for public ones, NT$21.867 for private ones and NT$5.859 for government-sponsored ones.
IV. Expense of Funds
In 1996, the average annual expense of funds per general social welfare organization and nursery school was NT$6.392 million, mainly for personnel payment, standing at 59.5% the highest. The average annual expense of funds per foundation was NT$27.227 million, mainly for aids, standing at 77.1% the highest. As divided by types of operation, the average annual expense of funds per nursery school was NT$9.645 million for public ones, NT$1.047 million for local ones, NT$4.706 for private ones and NT$11.348 for government-sponsored ones. The average annual expense of funds per general social welfare organization was NT$28.607 million for public ones, NT$19.48 for private ones and NT$5.332 for government-sponsored ones.
Working women stood at 47%. Over half were in business and service industry. Non-working women stood at 53%. The most common reasons were to take care of families and at schools or in further education.
Two third of working women were employed by private sector and the average monthly income was NT$27,000. 45% of them took current jobs for financial needs. 59% of working women were troubled by the working environment. Among which most thought their works too stressful, standing at 43%.
The average number of children of married women was 2.4. Over 90% were satisfied with their marriage lives. One out of every 30 women had been once raped by her husband. The main reasons were personality and problems of communication.
Most married women were troubled by financial problems, standing at 27.2%. Half of families were husbands and wives managing finance together.
69% of women were most concerned about information on social security. 70% of women led a recreational life of entertainment. Women ever participated in activities of private groups stood at 56%. Among which, most participated in school reunions. Near 20% of women participated in social movements advocated by the groups they recognized.
80% of women ever participated in social welfare service. Among which, most donated money and voluntarily took care of their neighbors.
One out of every 5 women had encountered misfortunes. Among which, most encountered severe illness or injuries and harassment from others.
In the governmental welfare measures, women were most satisfied with legal protection on working rights, rating 45% and least satisfied with protection service for life safety, rating 48%.
The welfare measures they believed the government should first take were services like “care for women in misfortunes” and “prevention for sexual assaults”. They believed the service the government should first provide for women in misfortunes was “employment training” and “financial aids”.
Regarding how to set up a full set of measures for nursery service, women believed that the government should first organize training for local nannies and then reinforce the evaluation and examination of nursery organizations.